中藥湯劑煎藥方法

       中藥湯劑是中醫自古以來應用最廣泛的劑型。因其適湯劑能夠充分適應中醫辨證施治的需要隨癥加減,又具有制備簡便、療效快,易吸收,作用強,取材天然、毒副作用小等幾大特點。臨床上特別適用于各種內外疑難眼科疾病,清代著名醫學家徐靈胎就曾講:"病之愈不愈。不但方必中病,方雖中病而服之不得其法,則非特無功,反而有害……"就指出了正確的服用湯劑可以加速病情的好轉,而錯誤的服用方法會使病情惡化。由此可見湯劑服用方法是否正確,直接影響著藥物在人體中的吸收和治療效果,為此向您介紹煎中藥的方法供您參考(具體需遵醫囑為準)。

       

第一步煎藥前的浸泡:藥物在煎煮前一定要浸泡,這是因為來源于植物類的中藥多是干燥品,通過加水浸泡可使藥材變軟,組織細胞膨脹后恢復其天然狀態,煎藥時易于有效成分浸出。一般以花,葉,莖類為主的藥物,浸泡時間為一個小時左右。以根,種子,根莖,果實類為主的藥物浸泡時間為2小時。

第二步、將藥放在火上,用武火(即大火)熬開,沸騰后改用文火(小火)保持微沸狀態,減慢水分蒸發,有利于有效成分的溶出。改用文火后開始計時,一般煎40~50分鐘。

第三步、將第一次煎出的藥液倒出,加入適量的熱水(水不要太多,以剛淹沒藥材2-3cm為宜)進行第二次煎煮,煎煮的時間約20-30分鐘左右即可。

       其他注意事項:煎藥的加水量也很重要,加水量的多少直接影響到湯劑的質量。加水少了,會造成藥物煎煮不透,有效成分浸出的不完全。加水多了,煎煮出的藥液多,病人服藥時很不方便。中藥材因其質地不同,它的吸水量差別也較大,一般加水量控制在5-10倍。重量相同的藥物,質地疏松其體積就大,吸水量自然就多。質地堅實其體積就小,吸水量就少。因此,煎煮花,葉,全草類藥物,加水量就要多一些。煎煮礦物類,貝殼類藥物,加水量就少一些。按照傳統的加水方法,是將藥物放入鍋內,第一次煎煮的加水量以水超過藥物表面3-5厘米,第二次煎煮的加水量以超過藥物表面3厘米為準。這種加水方法,簡便易行,又很容易掌握。如果加水加少,熬干了,那就不能再服用了,因為熬干的中藥藥性已經變了,不但起不到治病的作用,反而會適得其反。并且會產生毒素。所以要記住藥萬一不小心敖干,就千萬不能再服用!

       煎煮次數:以多次煎煮比一次長時間煎煮的效果好。實踐證明,湯劑煎煮兩次能夠煎出所含成分的90%左右,第三次藥物的有效成分已經非常有限,所以煎藥的次數以兩次為宜

       留取藥液量:一般指一劑藥經兩次煎煮合并后的藥液量。成人劑量一般取400-600毫升,每日分兩次服用。因年齡、體質、體重等原因具體用藥劑量和時間以遵醫囑為準。兒童服用劑量根據年齡和體重及其他情況具體遵醫囑服用為準。

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  • Visual acuity test
  • Retinoscopy & Refraction testing
  • Ophthalmoscope & slit lamp test
  • Non-contact Tonometer & Tonopen test
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